To support the launch of Intel's latest 12th generation 'Alder Lake' processors, Intel has also pulled the trigger on its latest Z690 motherboard chipset. Using a new LGA1700 socket, some of the most significant advancements with Alder Lake and Z690 include PCIe 5.0 support from the processor, as well as a PCIe 4.0 x8 link from the processor to the chipset. In this article, we're taking a closer look at over 50+ different DDR5 enabled motherboards designed to not only use the processing power of Alder Lake but offer users a myriad of high-class and premium features.

As we typically do with a new platform launch, we reached out to every motherboard vendor for all the information on its Z690 models, including images, specifications, power delivery information, and features. With new chipset launches, vendors usually have its 'launch day' models and models that come later on - for example ASRock's Aqua series, which we're still waiting to hear when the Aqua is going to hit the market. 

In this overview, we've compiled all the information we have into a single article with information we've received at the time of writing.

Intel Z690 Chipset: Like Z590, But Now With Native PCIe 4.0

With the introduction of Intel's 12th generation Core processors, one of the most significant advancements from the previous generation is that Alder Lake built on the 'Intel 7' manufacturing process, includes a hybrid PCIe lane layout. This consists of a total of x16 PCIe 5.0 lanes from the CPU set aside for graphics in either an x16 or x8/x8 configuration, and 4x PCIe 4.0 lanes dedicated to storage devices. Another significant improvement over the previous generation is a new PCIe 4.0 x8 DMI link between the CPU and the Z690 chipset. Previously with 11th gen (Rocket Lake), Intel upgraded it from a PCIe 3.0 x4 uplink on Z490 to a PCIe 3.0 x8 uplink on Z590. With Z690, the uplink is now fully-fledged PCIe 4.0 x8 lanes to interconnect things.

One of the most exciting and perhaps specific improvements is Intel's first DDR5 supported desktop platform. Intel's Alder Lake and Z690 combined actually offer support for both DDR5 and DDR4 memory. This means that those motherboard vendors either have to build their motherboards for one or the other, so it's Z690 with DDR5 or Z690 with DDR4, and no in-between. This article focuses purely on the DDR5 motherboards.

DDR5 versus DDR4 on Intel Alder Lake & Z690

Other features with Z690 include native support for USB 3.2 Gen2x2 (20 Gbps) Type-C connectivity, with the vast majority of Z690 models now opting to include this support at a base level. Intel has also upgraded its networking support at the chipset level, with an integrated Wi-Fi 6E PHY and RF for vendors. However, the majority of the cost and implementation still rely on vendors using Intel solutions through the proprietary CNVi connection. This is why some models include varying levels of Wi-Fi 6/6E CNVi at its disposal as either a feature-boosting move or cost-cutting measure to reduce it.

Intel Z690, Z590, and Z490 Chipset Comparison
Feature Z690 Z590 Z490
Socket LGA1700 LGA1200 LGA1200
PCIe Lanes (CPU) 16 x 5.0
4 x 4.0
20 x 4.0 16 x 3.0
PCIe Lanes (Chipset) 12 x 4.0
16 x 3.0
24 x 3.0 24 x 3.0
PCIe Specification (CPU) 5.0/4.0 4.0 3.0
Memory Support DDR5-4800B
DDR4-3200
DDR4-3200 DDR4-2933
PCIe Config x16
x8/x8
x8/x8/x4
x16
x8/x8
x8/x8/x4
x16
x8/x8
x8/x8+x4
DMI Lanes x8 4.0 x8 3.0 x4 3.0
Max USB 3.2 (Gen2/Gen1) 10/10 6/10 6/10
USB 3.2 Gen 2x2 (20 Gbps) Y Y ASMedia
Total USB 14 14 14
Max SATA Ports 8 6 6
Memory Channels (Dual) 2/2 2/2 2/2
Intel Optane Memory Support Y Y Y
Intel Rapid Storage Tech (RST) Y Y Y
Integrated Wi-Fi MAC Wi-Fi 6E Wi-Fi 6 Wi-Fi 6
Intel Smart Sound Y Y Y
Overclocking Support Y Y Y
Intel vPro N N N
ME Firmware 16 15 14
TDP (W) ? 6 6

Compared with previous generations of Intel's chipsets, the Intel Z690 is based on its 14nm manufacturing process, so it's similar to previous designs such as Z590 and Z490. Intel retains the same dual-channel memory support as previous and other brand's desktop platforms. In contrast, native SATA support has been upped to eight SATA slots instead of six of the prior generation.

Focusing on networking, Intel has upgraded to an integrated Wi-Fi 6E MAC over Wi-Fi 6 in the last two previous generations. While Intel states that it includes an integrated 2.5 GbE MAC/PHY, this is a little nonsensical, as wired ethernet still requires a MAC/PHY as an attached PCIe controller. This means regardless of whether a vendor is using a Gigabit, 2.5 GbE, or even 10 GbE, it connects the exact same way to the PCIe interface. 

Looking at the above Intel Z690 chipset block diagram, we can see the PCIe 4.0 x8 DMI interconnecting the processor with the chipset, with 16 x PCIe 5.0 lanes to either one full-length slot (x16) or two full-length slots (x8/x8), with 4 x PCIe 4.0 lanes designated to storage devices such as NVMe M.2 slots. (Ian has confirmed that storage on the main x16 slot is possible if desired.) 

From within the Z690 chipset, it offers various avenues of configurations available to motherboard vendors to use. New for Z690 includes 12 x PCIe 4.0 lanes, with another 16 x PCIe 3.0 lanes as part of the high-speed IO (HSIO). The onus is on motherboard vendors to use these new native PCIe 4.0 lanes as they wish, including through the use of either storage, additional PCIe 4.0 slots, or a mixture of both. Focusing on connectivity, Z690 allows vendors to use up to and include four USB 3.2 G2x2 Type-C (20 Gbps) ports, with up to 10 x USB 3.2 G2, 10 x USB 3.2 G1, and up to 14 x USB 2.0 ports. 

Alder Lake & Z690 Overclocking: Base Frequency Versus Turbo Power

Intel is also offering an enhanced overclocking model available with Alder Lake, which takes Processor Base Power (Base) and Maximum Turbo Power (Turbo) into account. The Base is the guaranteed peak power at base frequency which for the Intel Core i9-12900K is set at 125 W, whereas the maximum available Turbo Power is 241 W. Users with a basic understanding of Intel's former PL1 and PL2 methodology will note that it still exist under the hood - the base power is PL1, whereas Turbo is PL2. Tau, the time for turbo, is practically infinite for the unlocked K processors.

When it comes to overclocking in the current day and age, the main factors in play are still the same: cooling, capability, and power. As we saw with overclocking on numerous Z590 motherboards throughout the year, it was possible to pull nearly 500 W from the wall from the system when testing them. Using figures from our MSI MEG Z590 Ace motherboard review as an example, we were pulling 321 W peak power from the wall at default with CPU load only. In contrast, at 5.2 GHz all-cores with 1.425 V on the CPU VCore, we pulled 485 W. Overclocking with any platform, Intel or even AMD, adequate cooling needs to be considered for the designed core frequency and CPU VCore voltage combination, as well as equally sufficient power headroom from the power supply.

The Current Z690 For DDR5 Product Stack

Motherboards Confirmed So Far 

Through our contact with vendors, more than 50+ models are available Z690 using the new DDR5 memory. Most of these have currently been announced and detailed, with a small number waiting to be revealed or without specifications to date. Simply put, there will be no shortage of models to select from. It's no secret that motherboard pricing has been on the up, with the cheapest Z690 board having an official price of $190.

As with Z590, there are not that many micro-ATX options for Z690, with availability looking again to be limited. We are with only one micro-ATX sized model at launch, the ASUS ROG Strix Z690-G Gaming WIFI. It remains to be seen if we will see any more micro-ATX Z690 with support for DDR5, but watch this space.

Let's take a look at the current Z690 product stack with support for DDR5 (at the time of writing):

ASRock

ASRock's product stack for DDR5 on Z690 is the smallest of all of the 'major' vendors at launch, with just seven models. At the top of the stack, albeit the details of which are unannounced, is the unique ASRock Z690 Aqua. For now, the ASRock Z690 Taichi is the premier model, and it is one of the most expensive Taichi models to have ever existed. That's a bit odd for what used to be an entry level brand. 

ASRock Z690 Motherboard Product Stack (DDR5)
Model Size Overview
Link
Review
Link
Price
ASRock Z690 Aqua E-ATX Link   TBC
ASRock Z690 Aqua OC E-ATX Link    
ASRock Z690 OC Formula ? Link   $580
ASRock Z690 Taichi ATX Link   $590
ASRock Z690 Taichi Razer Edition ATX Link   TBC
ASRock Z690 PG Velocita ATX Link   $470
ASRock Z690 Phantom Gaming 4/D5 ATX Link   TBC
ASRock Z690 Phantom Gaming-ITX/TB4 ITX Link   TBC

While we expect there to be more ASRock Z690 and DDR5 models shortly, other models in the stack are from its Phantom Gaming series of models. This includes the ASRock Z690 PG Velocita, which is more premium than mid-range than compared to last-gen, and the Z690 Phantom Gaming 4/D5 acting as the mid-range model this time around. There's also the mini-ITX Phantom Gaming-ITX/TB4, which, as the model name suggests, returns with Thunderbolt 4, and its mini-ITX series has been a solid option for small form factor users over the years.

ASUS

Looking at the ASUS Z690 models with support for DDR5 memory, it has a typically well-rounded stack from top to bottom. It should be pointed out that ASUS has started to make its Republic of Gamers Maximus series more distinguishable and now opts to use the chipset name instead of Roman numerals for the higher end Maximus parts. As it stands, its flagship models include the ROG Maximus Z690 Extreme Glacial with a newly designed EKWB 'Ultrablock' for liquid cooling. At the same time, it shares the same premium and impressive feature set as the regular ROG Maximus Z690 Extreme. Other ROG Maximus models in the lineup include Z690 Formula with dual-cooled VRMs, and the first time it's been done since Z490.

ASUS Z690 Motherboard Product Stack (DDR5)
Model Size Overview
Link
Review
Link
Price
ASUS ROG Maximus Z690 Extreme Glacial E-ATX Link   $2000
ASUS ROG Maximus Z690 Extreme E-ATX Link   $1100
ASUS ROG Maximus Z690 Formula ATX Link   $800
ASUS ROG Maximus Z690 Apex ATX Link   $720
ASUS ROG Maximus Z690 Hero ATX Link   $600
ASUS ROG Strix Z690-E Gaming WIFI ATX Link   $470
ASUS ROG Strix Z690-F Gaming WIFI ATX Link   $400
ASUS ROG Strix Z690-G Gaming WIFI mATX Link   TBC
ASUS ROG Strix Z690-I Gaming WIFI ITX Link   $440
ASUS ProArt Z690 Creator WIFI ATX Link   $480
ASUS Prime Z690-A ATX Link   $300
ASUS Prime Z690-P WIFI ATX Link   $250
ASUS Prime Z690-P ATX Link   $230

Other mainstays return for ASUS include the Hero and the extreme overclocking equipped Apex. Looking down the stack is the ROG Strix series, with all the alphabet models returning, including the premium E, the more wallet-efficient F, and the mini-ITX I series. The Prime series sits more towards the mid-range than the entry-level with most of its models, and the entry point for its Z690 models is the $230 ASUS Prime Z690-P.

GIGABYTE

GIGABYTE has the largest DDR5 Motherboard stack, with 14 new models unveiled at present. Looking from the top is the GIGABYTE Z690 Aorus Xtreme WaterForce with a custom water block, while the regular Z690 Aorus Extreme caters to the hardened enthusiast market. Both models share the same high-end feature set. Moving down the stack is the premium Z690 Aorus Master with an impressive feature set for the price, while the Ultra, Pro, Elite AX, and mini-ITX Ultra all make up the mid-range options with typical Aorus style and feature sets to boot.

GIGABYTE Z690 Motherboard Product Stack (DDR5)
Model Size Overview
Link
Review
Link
Price
GIGABYTE Z690 Aorus Xtreme WaterForce E-ATX Link   TBC
GIGABYTE Z690 Aorus Xtreme E-ATX Link   $900
GIGABYTE Z690 Aorus Master ATX Link   $470
GIGABYTE Z690 Aorus Tachyon ATX Link   TBC
GIGABYTE Z690 Aorus Pro ATX Link   $330
GIGABYTE Z690 Aorus Ultra ATX Link   $370
GIGABYTE Z690I Aorus Ultra ITX Link   $290
GIGABYTE Z690 Aorus Elite AX ATX Link   $270
GIGABYTE Z690 Aorus Elite ATX Link   TBC
GIGABYTE Z690 Gaming X ATX Link   $230
GIGABYTE Z690 Aero D ATX Link   TBC
GIGABYTE Z690 Aero G ATX Link   TBC
GIGABYTE Z690 UD AX ATX Link   $220
GIGABYTE Z690 UD AC ATX Link   TBC
GIGABYTE Z690 UD ATX Link   TBC

Moving down the stack and the GIGABYTE Z690 Gaming X offers a solid bridge between the Aorus series and the non-gaming branded Z690 UD AX and UD models. The GIGABYTE Z690 Aero D offers an impressive feature set with a focus on content creation, which is spearheaded by an Intel Thunderbolt 4 controller and a clean-cut aesthetic. In contrast, the Z690 Aero G offers a much more wallet-friendly feature set with a similar design.

MSI

Focusing on the DDR5 supported models, the flagship will be the MEG Z690 Godlike, but we're still waiting for details on that at the time of writing. Down a step in the stack is the MSI MEG Z690 Ace, with a very premium feature set including five M.2 slots and Thunderbolt 4 connectivity, while the Unify and Unify-X cater to those looking for an aesthetically pleasing system, but still with premium features and solid connectivity options.

MSI Z690 Motherboard Product Stack (DDR5)
Model Size Overview
Link
Review
Link
Price
MSI MEG Z690 Godlike E-ATX Link   TBC
MSI MEG Z690 Ace E-ATX Link   $600
MSI MEG Z690 Unify ATX Link   TBC
MSI MEG Z690 Unify-X ATX Link   $500
MSI MEG Z690I Unify ITX Link   $400
MSI MPG Z690 Carbon WIFI ATX Link   $400
MSI MPG Z690 Carbon EK X ATX Link   TBC
MSI MPG Z690 Force WIFI ATX Link   $390
MSI MAG Z690 Tomahawk WIFI ATX Link   TBC
MSI MAG Z690 Torpedo EK X ATX Link   TBC
MSI MAG Z690 Torpedo ATX Link   TBC
MSI Pro Z690-A WIFI ATX Link   $250
MSI Pro Z690-A ATX Link   $230

Occupying the mid-range is its Performance Gaming (MPG) series, with the MPG Z690 Carbon WIFI and MPG Z690 Force offering similar features but with a different aesthetic choice. MSI also intends to launch an MPG Z690 Carbon EK X model with custom EKWB monoblock included to keep the processor and VRM cool. For gamers on a budget, the MAG series is also back with mainstay models such as the Z690 Tomahawk WIFI and MAG Z690 Torpedo; both have similar feature sets, a decent array of connectivity. The Pro series occupies the entry-level, with less aggressive aesthetics and key and critical component choices based on usability and user experience.

Other Z690 Product Stack Options

There are also a few Z690 models to consider outside of the major players.

Biostar has announced one DDR5 enabled Z690 motherboard for the launch of Alder Lake with the Z690 Valkyrie. It has plenty of premium features and a different aesthetic from those outside of the major vendors. EVGA has also announced it will release two Z690 models, the EVGA Z690 Dark K|NGP|N edition for extreme overclockers, as well as a more gaming-centric Z690 Classified model. Colorful to date has also announced one Z690 model for those looking to use DDR5 memory, the Colorful iGame Z690 Ultra D5, which targets entry-level users.

Other Z590 Motherboards
Model Size Overview
Link
Review
Link
Price
Biostar Z690 Valkyrie ATX Link   $600
Colorful iGame Z690 Ultra D5 ATX Link   TBC
EVGA Z690 Dark K|NGP|N ? Link   TBC
EVGA Z690 Classified ATX Link   TBC

Each subsequent page is a brief analysis and rundown of each model announced, culminating with a conclusion of board features versus other models.

We will also be publishing a DDR4 version of this article shortly.

ASRock Z690 Taichi (DDR5) & Z690 Taichi Razer Edition (DDR5)
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  • mode_13h - Sunday, November 14, 2021 - link

    I don't mind "leverage", so long as it's an apt analogy. I think its modern roots might've been in the world of finance, where a "leveraged buyout" is one where a small amount of assets are used as collateral for taking on a greater amount of debt to fund the bulk of the buyout price.

    IMO, one of the more annoying abuses is substitution of "learning" for "a lesson learned". People talking about "learnings" sound to me like business-school idiots, who seem to have invented their own jargon out of jealousy of real professions.
    Reply
  • GeoffreyA - Sunday, November 14, 2021 - link

    Yes, leverage works well when tied to the proper sense, but I see it being "leveraged" more and more as a high-flown synonym of use, much the same way that highly intellectual folk of an earlier era found that "utilise" was shinier than the plain, homely "use." In short, substituting cardboard for a brick.

    Watch out, talking about the esteemed language of business school. Mr. B. Swan might be an avid reader of Anandtech.
    Reply
  • Oxford Guy - Sunday, November 14, 2021 - link

    Do you wear a suit and tie ever? Do you think men who do look more respectable than those wearing ‘casual’ clothes?

    Prestige dialects are about maintaining one’s social status — a barrier for competition. They’re not primarily about concision.

    Similarly, overly-elaborate clothing like penguin suits with ties aren’t about keeping one’s body suitably regulated when it comes to temperature, protected from sun damage, and protecting others from the horrors of nudity. Overly-elaborate clothing is about maintaining social status.
    Reply
  • Oxford Guy - Sunday, November 14, 2021 - link

    It’s the unnecessary complexity that’s considered a boon rather than a drawback. Reply
  • GeoffreyA - Monday, November 15, 2021 - link

    I agree with your argument, Oxford Guy, and no, I don't use a suit and tie. Having said that, you've caught me on a weak point, because while I don't use them, I think certain styles of the past were fantastic. Just think of James Stewart or Cary Grant. Or, on the side of the ladies, Ingrid Bergman, Grace Kelly, or any classic actress really. Truly, they give the dressers of today a run for their money. Reply
  • Oxford Guy - Sunday, November 14, 2021 - link

    ‘Unfortunately, the English language is on a downgrade, and it's just going to get worse and worse.’

    No and yes.

    Languages are always changing. The worst language is one that remains static, increasingly less able to meet the needs of its speakers.

    The prestige dialect of a language is arbitrary and also changing. While a high school textbook from 1920 may impress with its diction there was a lot less competing for energy/time then and ignorance was hardly less. It does, though, make for the illusion that high school students have become less intelligent. IQ is actually up due to, for instance, reductions in lead exposure and improved prenatal nutrition.

    Neologisms often enrich languages rather than degrade them (not always). Even when the new terminology is redundant (which it frequently is) — speakers tend to simply abandon the older words/phrases. English is absolutely rife with abandoned words and phrases. Poets trot them out to impress but even they usually don’t bother with what dictionaries label ‘archaic’.

    One thing that seems to be increasing in English is a reduction in working vocabulary, due to globalization. Being monolingual has drawbacks but having to learn 5 ways to talk about a cat (to express the same idea) has a price. This ‘global speak’ is one of the reasons listening to tennis players is often painful. It’s vacuous corporatism plus a limited vocabulary (one not merely limited by a lack of humanities education). However, respect for the humanities continues to decline.

    Working vocabulary is a bit like the RISC vs. CISC debate. It takes more time/energy to develop a large working vocabulary (CISC instructions) — and it’s more difficult to keep it all in one’s working vocabulary. The benefit is that it takes fewer words to express an idea. We’re generally trained to see the use of a ‘more accurate’ special word as the mark of intellect, versus using more more common words to get the same idea across. If the same amount of energy is involved then it’s arbitrary to prefer one over another. The reduction in the attractiveness of monolingualism should lead to a reduction in the prestigiousness of ‘50-cent words’.

    Euphemism is also perhaps an increasing problem. Orwell wrote an essay about it in the 50s or so so it’s not new. However, buzzword labels and euphemism seem to be growing in importance. Again, though, calling someone a communist or homosexual was enough to shut down all rational discourse. Prior to that there were witches, homosexuals, and heretics. So, perhaps the overall level of this hasn’t changed much.

    Languages other than English and Chinese are under threat in terms of degradation, though, from loss of speakers and usage. In Salzburg, university physics is now taught in English.

    I wouldn’t worry, at all, about the degradation of English and Chinese. I’d be more concerned about the ability to use the languages in the face of increasing censorship, censorship AI (the growing tech power divide) increasingly facilitates. Not being able to speak a language fully, due to that, is a path to greater diminishment.
    Reply
  • mode_13h - Monday, November 15, 2021 - link

    > One thing that seems to be increasing in English is a reduction in working vocabulary

    In terms of importance, I've found clarity of expression to be second only to clarity of thought, in software design. One needs to be clear about semantics not only in one's own mind, but also capable of clearly and concisely expressing them in the form of names and documentation.

    So often, bugs are the consequence of confusion. Either on the part of the original author or by maintainers or API users. That's why clear conception of ideas must be paired with clear communication, if an API is to be correctly implemented, used, and maintained.

    This point of view has been shaped by decades of experience. I can often tell the difference between someone muddling concepts together in their head vs. simply lacking the vocabulary to express the finer distinctions.

    > This ‘global speak’ is one of the reasons listening to tennis players is often painful.

    Probably true of pro athletes, in most sports. They're selected for their aptitude on the court or field, and honing those skills is where they spend the bulk of their time & energy. It doesn't help that pro athletes are increasingly deferring college to extend the potential length of their athletic careers.
    Reply
  • GeoffreyA - Monday, November 15, 2021 - link

    Quite true. I'm no expert at programming, more of a hobbyist, but I've found that thinking about something beforehand often leads to better code. Writing it "on-the-fly" usually results in a mess, which can persist. I'd like to add to my comment on English that there's an analogy in programming languages. Just like updating English, there's been a constant trend to come up with new languages that address "weaknesses" in C and C++. Reply
  • GeoffreyA - Monday, November 15, 2021 - link

    Quite right that languages are always changing, but the change may be for the worse as well as better. Despite being a lover of all that is old, I feel that English has actually gone nearer to its roots in the past two decades. People appear to be writing plain, concise English, comparable to the simplicity of Elizabethan prose, I would contend.

    People say that a language has to be brought up to date to express new ideas: that may be so in the fields of science and technology, but certainly not in human nature and relations. When I look at the 18th-century writers, it's evident that our distinctions have been blurred and watered down. The way they expressed life was precise, but unfortunately more Latinate, compared with our crude analogues of today. Apart from science and technology, that language isn't lacking at all to express present life (and was much more CISC, to use your example). In fact, there are distinctions that are seemingly lost; and lacking the language, our view on those points is cruder or non-existent. So much for increasing civilisation. Going further back, the Elizabethan English of that fellow from the Globe, or Bacon in prose, if one clears away the archaic usages, all the thous and the eths, is about as "modern" as English can get. I believe there is a true centre, "that mode of phraseology so analogous to the principles of a language," which English has sometimes strayed away from (particularly the 17th and 19th centuries), and I'd argue that the 20th and 21st centuries have seen a return to it in many ways. Unfortunately, there are some frightfully ugly inventions as well, that any true lover of good English will wince when looking at. Selfie, anyone? Hashtags? Upskilling the staff? There are many others but memory, as usual, is failing me on the spot.

    Euphemism is a big problem (and I believe you're referring to "Politics and the English Language"), simply because it goes contrary to truth and has an effect on the mind, where the false, blurry idea becomes the thing itself. At its worst, people are able to commit criminal or unjust acts because they're sheltered beneath a euphemistic, polite phraseology. And it spills over into censorship, too, and only the warm, fuzzy forms are acceptable. Again, the important of being simple, direct, and exact in one's language and "telling it like it is."
    Reply
  • Oxford Guy - Monday, November 15, 2021 - link

    I can’t be sure but I believe Orwell critiqued heavy use of Latin derivatives along with passive voice and other strategies as a method for being less clear — a form of euphemism/doublespeak. I think Orwell would have responded to your crudeness point with the opposite point of view — that simplicity and concision are superior. Personally, I think irregularity in grammar and English’s terrible spelling (which can be easily fixed) are vestiges of the past that are ‘degradation’ inefficiencies.

    ‘but the change may be for the worse as well as better.’

    The only changes I can think of that would be for the worse would be having a language lose speakers (a dying language) and a language declining in expressiveness from increasing AI-based censorship. Language change generally favors increasing efficiency, although substituting half-pidgin ‘global speak’ due to polylingualism being more important is also an issue.

    All human (non-synthetic/artificial) languages are sorely in need of more change than their speakers are willing to allow in the short term. That’s the main problem — the opposite of degradation from change. English spelling, for instance, is utterly preposterous and one linguist’s reform scheme is very easy to get used to. Stubborn nostalgia, though, is extremely difficult to overcome in the short term. Gender in languages like German and French is also very stupid. It’s a massive waste of energy to ascribe sexual characteristics to clouds, trees, and soup.
    Reply

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